In 1943, KARR and AMSTRONG established a summary of laboratories’ experiments regarding the Quartz Crystals manufacturing. First studies go back to the early 20th century.
The piezoelectric properties of Quartz were discovered by Pierre and Jacques Curie at the end of the 19th century. Piezoelectricity is the ability of crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress.
The piezoelectric effect is reversible in that piezoelectric crystals, when subjected to an externally applied voltage, can change shape by a small amount. The deformation, about 0.1% of the original dimension finds its useful applications such as the production and detection of sound, generation of high voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalance and ultra fine focusing of optical assemblies.
Today’s quartz growing processes come from SPEZIA works in 1905.
The SPEZIA method consisted in working with an aqueous solution of sodium silicate under a pressure of 150 bars, establishing a temperature gradient between the dissolution zone and the growth zone. At the time, lascas was located above the seeds.
SPEZIA succeeded at the time in manufacturing small synthesis quartz but the quartz growth remained very slow.
It is only by World War II that SPEZIA works were further developed, as it became obvious that the worldwide demand for quartz was higher than the natural quartz resources available. It therefore became critical to grow synthesis quartz.
Following NACKEN works in Germany, BUTUZOV and BRIATOV works in Russia, HALE, BROWN, WALKER and BUEHLER, LAUDISE, HIGGINS, NIELSEN and SULLIVAN in the USA, RABBETS in the UK, as well as Japanese researchers’ works, plants for growing synthesis quartz were built in Japan, Russia and in the USA.
First Synthesis Quartz Crystals were manufactured in 1955.
Nowadays, the worldwide synthesis quartz production is of 4000 tons per year (45% in Asia, 30% in North America, 20% in Russia, 5% rest of the world...) in order to address the electronics and telecommunication markets.
Studies and research carried out at the Centre National français d'Etudes des Télécommunications (French telecommunication research centre) made it possible to develop an expertise in France related to the growth of synthesis quartz crystals aimed at piezoelectric application. Gemma Quartz & Crystal (previously known as SICN) has been collaborating with laboratories and has been producing and marketing quartz in France since 1972.
The company currently meets the international markets requirements for Top High Quality (THQ) Synthesis Quartz aimed at high precision and high performance strategic applications in the telecommunication, military and spatial markets.
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